Emergent coastal structures such as groins, detached offshore breakwaters, and sea walls have been successfully adopted as coastal protection measures for many decades (Dean and Dalrymple, 2001: Silvester and Hsu, 1997). These type of structures are common in the US and Europe (Dean and Dalrymple, 2001), and even more so in Japan, where Seiji et al.
European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (EGNOS), the European Satellite Based Augmentation System (SBAS), provides corrections and integrity information to GPS signals over a broad area centred over Europe, and is fully interoperable with other existing SBAS systems (e.g., WAAS, the brand name of the American SBAS).
In 2014, the INSPIRE Directive had its seventh birthday and is undergoing revision. During those seven years the Directive and its regulation were implemented into the national law of the EU states. Additions were made as well as numerous technical guidelines (TG) and other documents, which were designed to better explain individual requirements and assist in their implementation. These documents have recommendatory character.
When looking at the timeline of technology of today’s consumer electronics, there are several interesting connections with technology and associated infrastructure originally (at least partly) developed in the cont ext of DoD funded projects. Large-scale integration of this technology into consumer electronics created an economy of scale that is unmatched, enabling capabilities and services that otherwise may have been prohibitive due to cost.
Turkey, in the 1980s communications satellites were purchased. In 1989, a tender was floated for the first communications satellite project. Following this development, the French Aerospatiale company on December 21, 1990 signed the ‘Turkish National Satellite Communication System Agreement’ with Turkey…