The ubiquitous dimensions of surveying and mapping deliverables in Nigeria

Dec 2023 | No Comment

In Ubiquitous dimensions, the notion of a “map” must be replaced with “mapping,” as users demand real-time creation and manipulation of maps in a digital society

PEPPLE, Godwill Tamunobiekiri

Department of Surveying and Geomatics, Faculty of Environmental Sciences Rivers State University Port Harcourt, Nigeria

UDOH, Ofonmbuk Jeremiah

Office of the Surveyor Genera Delta State, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria

WEST, Emilia Biobele

Department of Surveying and Geomatics, Faculty of Environmental Sciences Rivers State University Port Harcourt, Nigeria

LAZARUS, Blessing Victor

Department of Surveying and Geomatics, Faculty of Environmental Sciences Rivers State University Port Harcourt, Nigeria


Ubiquitous dimension of surveying and mapping refers to the utilization of surveying and mapping deliverables or environment to create maps for various sectors of the economy to resolve spatial problems. Harnessing the following basic elements; the real world, the map or mapping environment, the user, and the information technology (IT) infrastructure in a human-oriented context that emphasizes the interaction between the output map and map user’s responses such as spatial cognition and decision making. This dimension emphasizes the interaction between output maps and user responses, such as spatial cognition and decision making. In Ubiquitous dimensions, the notion of a “map” must be replaced with “mapping,” as users demand real-time creation and manipulation of maps in a digital society. Mapping deliverables could be of any of the following dimension (2D, 3D, and 4D), as well as common spatial articulation and categorization of the objects mapped.


A surveyor is a professional with requisite the academic qualifications and technical expertise to practice the science of measurement, to assemble and assess land and geospatial related information for the purpose of planning and implementing the efficient administration of land, the sea and structures thereof (Ejiobih, 2008) while Surveying as the act and science of determine the location, size and shape of parcel of land, and other relevance information about the area (Kolawole, 2006). In today’s digital era we have definitions such as “Surveying being the capture, processing, analysis, presentation and the management of Geo-Spatial information (Ayeni, 2015). In Nigeria, the Surveyors Council of Nigeria (SURCON) is the regulatory body responsible, by law, for the certification of Surveyors. The use of Geospatial information is increasing rapidly. There is a growing recognition amongst both government and the private sectors that the understanding of location and place is a vital component of effective fact- based decision making. As it is said “Everything happens somewhere” because location matters, it is also concluded that Surveying is Ubiquitous. Listed below are some of the needs of its to some MDA’s.

Mapping technology has significantly transformed various sectors, including administration, agriculture, archaeology, communication, and education. Line maps provide topographic and boundary information for boundary demarcation and constituency delimitation, improving political and administrative relationships. The integration of mapping tools and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has led to profound impacts on decision-making, resource allocation, governance, and public engagement. Mapping tools have a comprehensive view of complex issues, empowering citizens and standing as a testament to its transformative potential.

In administration, there is a need to have map(s) that clearly outlines the boundaries of each country, state, district, constituency, local government area (LGA) and ward. Line maps are produced to maintain the relationship between nations, states and LGAs, provide adequate topographic and boundary information to aid in boundary demarcation for the related places and also in constituency delimitation issues which goes a long way in improving both political and administrative relationships either internationally, interstate or in LGAs. As governments continue to harness the power of spatial information, the impact of mapping tools on shaping policies, enhancing resource allocation, and fostering public engagement will undoubtedly remain profound.

In agriculture, modern farming practices have evolved dramatically, thanks to cutting-edge technologies that optimize crop production, conserve resources, and ensure food security for a growing national population. At the heart of this transformation lies surveying and mapping information that empowers farmers to make data-driven decisions, hence farmers no longer toil blindly across their fields. As we confront the challenges of a changing climate and a growing global population, the role of surveying and mapping information in agriculture becomes ever more vital. It is a powerful tool that ensures we can feed the world sustainably while protecting the environment for generations to come.

In archaeology, mapping plays a crucial role in dereferencing historical locations, research, and tracking artifacts. Mapping has expanded the range of archaeological questions and facilitated collaboration across disciplines.

In communication, mapping plays a critical role in the distribution, location, and management of communication lines and facilities. The convergence of mapping technology with communication tools has created a dynamic synergy, reshaping the way we understand, navigate, and share spatial information.

In education, mapping plays a critical role in the development of a nation’s curriculum, enabling students to access digital information and navigate the physical world. Overall, mapping technology has transformed various sectors, including education, government, agriculture, and communication.

In environmental studies, the significance of surveying and mapping in addressing the nation’s most pressing issues cannot be overstated. These technologies have proven to be invaluable tools in the realm of environmental management, providing critical data and insights to guide conservation efforts, resource management, and disaster preparedness. For constructing infrastructure projects like roads, bridges, and pipelines, environmental surveys and mapping are conducted. These assessments help identify potential environmental impacts and design mitigation measures to minimize harm to ecosystems. The monitoring Surveying and mapping also enable us to monitor shifts in land cover, sea levels, and temperature patterns, provide valuable insights into the health and potential threats facing renewable resources such as forests, water bodies, agricultural land. The nations quest to preserve and protect our environment, surveying and mapping technologies have emerged as an indispensable ally in understanding climate change and it’s impacts hence developing strategies for adaptation and mitigation. As we navigate the complexities of our ever-changing world, these technologies remain essential tools in our pursuit of a greener and more sustainable environment that policymakers and land managers can make informed decisions, protecting and preserving these irreplaceable assets for future generations.

In finance, mapping helps track and monitor revenue generation from various sectors, such as tax collection, customs, immigration, and health. It transforms complex data into actionable insights, aids decision-making, enhances risk management, and fosters innovation. Mapping has revolutionized the finance sector by offering powerful visual tools for analyzing, interpreting, and communicating complex financial information. In forestry, mapping is essential for inventory, change detection, and timber production. It provides detailed insights into forest composition, structure, and dynamics, facilitating informed decision making, resource management, and environmental conservation. As technology evolves, mapping in forestry will continue to improve, with advancements in satellite imagery, LiDAR technology, and artificial intelligence enhancing data collection and analysis capabilities. Mapping remains an indispensable tool in ensuring the health, resilience, and longevity of forests.

In geology, Mapping plays a crucial role in soil mineral analysis by providing valuable insights into the Earth’s composition, structure, and history, enabling scientists to understand geological formations, identify mineral deposits, predict natural hazards, and make informed land use decisions. Mapping techniques have a significant impact on economic development, natural hazard mitigation, and ecological conservation. In governance at the lowest tier Nigeria has 774 local government areas that uses line and cadastral Maps for planning, implementing, and monitoring tax duties, utility services, and infrastructures. These maps aid in decision-making, resource allocation, urban planning, and citizen engagement. Mapping technology has also transformed the health sector, revolutionizing disease surveillance, resource allocation, and healthcare access. By harnessing geographical information, the health sector has become more proactive, data-driven, and capable of addressing health challenges on a broader scale.

In the petroleum sector has seen a significant transformation due to the extensive use of mapping technologies. Mapping has transformed exploration, production, and management of petroleum resources, enhancing resource recovery, profitability, and sustainability. The sector’s future will be shaped by these technologies, which not only enhance resource recovery and profitability but also enable responsible and sustainable operations in an ever-changing global landscape. In planning, maps serve as visual tools that enable planners to analyze, communicate, and make informed decisions about spatial relationships and resource allocation. Recall that planning, the art of anticipating change and balancing economic, social, political, and physical forces, relies heavily on maps for urban and regional development. The integration of mapping technology into planning enhances efficiency, accuracy, and overall quality of outcomes in diverse sectors. The combination of spatial data analysis and visual representation empowers planners to create sustainable, resilient, and well-designed urban landscapes.

In population studies, mapping plays a crucial role in this sector, ensuring accuracy, efficiency, and equitable resource distribution. Since population census is a crucial process for a nation’s statistical system, providing demographic, economic, and social data. Mapping improves the reliability of census data, informs governance, planning, and development, and leads to more informed decision-making (United Nations, 2008). In the power generation and distribution sector, mapping technologies have revolutionized the operations of the Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN), formerly National Electric Power Authority (NEPA), and the Nigeria Electric Regulatory Commission (NERC). This has led to improved infrastructure management, enhanced customer service, data-driven decision-making, and better disaster preparedness, ultimately contributing to a more reliable and efficient power supply for Nigeria’s residents and businesses.

In national security, maps give the security unit the ability of a sovereign state to protect and defend its citizens, including crime monitoring, prevention, search, rescue operations, and tracking thefts (Osisanya, ND). To achieve this, a state must have an up-to-date Line Map of its jurisdiction. Advancements in technology can make government surveillance more effective, and solutions like district wide-view dronebased camera systems can help protect rail lines and pipelines. Collaboration between military and security agencies and the Office Surveyor General of the Federation is crucial for generating geospatial intelligence for effective utilization by authorities. Maps are essential tools in security, providing valuable information, aiding planning, enhancing situational awareness, and facilitating communication for various security-related purposes. By leveraging geospatial data, security agencies can enhance their effectiveness, minimize risks, and protect people and assets more efficiently.

Sports in the leisure and recreation sector can contribute to the GDP of Nigeria if well managed. A Line map showing topographical, road, and utilities at various scales is required for decision-making and finding suitable areas for facilities installation. Mapping technology has significantly transformed the sport development sector, enhancing player performance analysis, tactical strategies, injury prevention, fan engagement, scouting, venue management, training, referee support, and broadcast coverage. As technology advances, mapping’s impact on the sports industry is likely to evolve further, leading to more sophisticated applications and enhanced experiences for all stakeholders.

Tourism is a lucrative industry that significantly impacts the economy and social context of countries, fostering the development of other sectors through a multiplier effect. It encompasses activities, facilities, services, and industries that provide travel experiences, including transportation, accommodation, entertainment, recreation, and destination attractions (Fadahunsi, 2011). Surveyors play a crucial role in providing accurate and precise maps of tourist areas, aiding in planning and developing tourist destinations, infrastructure, and facilities. These maps provide information about terrain, land use, elevation, and other features, enhancing visitor experiences and ensuring responsible development of tourist destinations.

Transportation and aviation sectors are crucial for a nation’s GDP and require continuous survey data production. Maps are needed for planning, location, and construction of roads, airports, railroads, and maintenance. Mapping technology has transformed these sectors by making travel safer, more efficient, and environmentally conscious. Advanced navigation systems and accurate mapping data enable pilots to navigate through complex airspace, make informed decisions during takeoff, landing, and mid-flight, and design road networks, public transportation routes, and city layouts. Water Supply depends solely on mapping technology because it aids the management and provision of clean water, enhancing efficiency, decision-making, and resource management. The integration of spatial data and analytics empowers water corporations to operate more efficiently, make informed decisions, and contribute to sustainable water management practices.


The public and private sectors are facing significant geo-spatial needs due to the large investments involved in petroleum products and cement. As location matters and the numerous factories and construction sites require geo-spatial information, the ubiquitous dimensions of surveying and mapping deliverables are crucial and essential for efficient use in these industries. In most cases, the end product of survey works is a map. It could be either line map, cadastral map or thematic map or a combination of two or all the maps.

Therefore, the nature or type of information to be extracted is what determines the type of map production or combination. Hence, the importance of survey in every sector to harness both human and material resources while monitoring the finance and growth of the sector can never be over emphasized. As such the use of surveyors in the different sectors should always be considered and given priority as the results gotten is what determines to a great extent how such sector can grow while also adapting to the changing times and conditions.


1. Kolawole G. S. (2006). Basic Principles in Surveying
2. Ayeni W. A. (2015). Hydrographic Surveying Education “SURCON Agenda”
3. UN-GGIM (2013). Future Trends in Geospatial Information Management
4. Fadahunsi, J. T. (2011). “Application of geographical information system (GIS) technology to tourism management in Ile-Ife, Osun state, Nigeria”, Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 274 – 283.
5. UNWTO (2008). “International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics. ST/ESA/STAT/SER.M/83/Rev.1 Issue 83 of Statistical Papers, United Nations Statistics Division, ISSN 0250-9822.

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