GNSS education in Asia Pacific: Miles to go
With our universities and numerous polytechnics offering Geomatic program, more is expected from them
THERE seems to be numerous GNSS education and training programs around locally, with government’s institutions and agencies taking the lead. Private industries such as GNSS vendors are also running specialized short courses, specifically hardware and software specific. Those taking the courses come from a huge variety of backgrounds – environmentalists, people working in local and central government, utility companies, the military and non-governmental organizations. And there seem to be about hundreds of different GNSS and related textbooks.
Yet, despite all this, GNSS education and training is astonishingly lacking behind and – in our view – is mostly stuck on historical tramlines. Since the emergence of GPS in the middle 1980’s and lately GNSS, there has been a shortage of skills in its use at several levels. Most educators were of the view that the technical complexity of GNSS operations and their sophisticated implementation requirements made the design and development of GNSS difficult to understand.
In Malaysia, GNSS education and training programs appears under Geomatic field of study. Geomatic study primarily entered university curricula in the mid-1980s, although there are notable exceptions such as at the UTM which commenced its undergraduate program a decade before in the early 1970s.
Teaching of Geomatic through the 1990’s continued to follow a largely conventional path with lectures on theory plus practical exercises using either the latest technology from the major vendors (such as Ashtech and Trimble) or more commonly through the use of more simplified PC-based, university-developed software products.
Since those early years, UTM, USM, UPM and UiTM have now established graduate programs in Geomatic, while individual service subjects have also been made widely available for students. However, there is now an increasing trend towards the recognition of Geomatic technology as a discipline in its own right, and complete programs are becoming available at the undergraduate and graduate level. Examples from UTM include: the Bachelor of Geomatic Engineering.
The current Geomatic undergraduate degree administered by the Department of Geomatics at the UTM is the Bachelor of Geomatic Engineering – a four-year professional course of study that meets the requirements of the Institution of Surveyors, Malaysia. The degree originally had its foundations in land surveying and mapping science, but in recent years has moved into the wider domain of Geomatic field. Nonetheless, it is still fundamentally a professional engineering degree structured around the requirements of the professional bodies and licensing authorities that accredit it.
However, the Geomatic engineering discipline has rapidly expanded over the last decade—to the extent that the geographic component of information technology has now become a major global growth area. Indeed, annual worldwide expenditure in this field (in terms of software, hardware, training and data) is estimated to grow tremendously. Thus, the demand for qualified graduates in this area is becoming more acute than ever before, and is certainly greater than the demand for graduates from the Department’s mainstream professional engineering degree.
While the B. Sc. Geomatic Engineering degree has moved a long way towards helping to meet the shortfall in human capital in the GNSS industry, it is still constrained by its need to serve the land surveying and engineering professions, yet the rapidly growing locational information industry is continuing to demand at a greater heights.
Generally, what is required in programs of GNSS education are topics covering understanding of the GNSS system, its capability and limitations, extent of applications, and other associated or related topics. These could be achieved through taught modules as well as hands-on sessions (Walter, 2002 and Merry, 2002).
Within the understanding of the GNSS systems, discussions could be made on the system architecture and working principles, hardware and operations. For example, users should understand that GNSS are radio navigation systems which uses satellites to transmit the navigation signals to its users. The satellites however are passive devices. It only retransmitting back whatever information uploaded to its memory. The system is actually governed by a network of Ground Control Stations which maintains and defined the reference datum, as well as tracking the satellites to determine its orbital motion. The users on the other hand requires a suitable receiver to receive signals from the satellites to obtained its services. GNSS offers at least three services, namely locationbased services (LBS), precise timing and military/scientific. For the LBS, users need to receive at least signal from four satellites and using a triliteration formula within the receiver’s firmware, to compute its position with respect to the reference datum of specific system. For the precise timing applications, a single satellite is what is needed to give time accurate to about a millisecond. Signals of GNSS could also be used for scientific purposes, such as for the monitoring of the Total electron Content (TEC) of the atmosphere (Walter, 2003).
Users also need to know capabilities and limitations of GNSS. On a basic mode user operation, GNSS could give positioning accuracy to within several tenths of meters and height determinations to about three times as worse. On a differential mode (D-GNSS), a significant improvement could be achieved, with positioning accuracy to 2-3 meters only and height to about 5-7 meters. With the use of carrierphase data of the transmitted signals, a more sophisticated receiver as well as rigorous data processing algorithm, user could determine their position up to couple centimeters and height to about several centimeters. Limitations to GNSS services are mainly things that interrupts the operation of its system, such as the delay in the propagation path of the signal caused by the atmosphere, signal blockage such as by dense tree foliage and structures such as building walls and tunnels. For sure, GNSS signals could not travels in water. GNSS need a reasonable area of open sky, to enable the receiver receiving its signal. GNSS signals could also be interrupted by other signal transmissions from such as radio and cellular services tower.
Users have to be aware that at least two of the existing GNSS, namely the GPS and GLONASS are military navigation system, hence having a dual-service signals, military and civilian. By this virtue, military usage of these systems takes precedent over the civilian usage. By default also, military services is of several fold better than the civilian services.
GNSS education programs in Malaysia
GNSS education and training programs in Malaysia can be grouped into formal education programs, shortcourses and other programs.
Formal GNSS education programs
Formal GNSS education programs are carried out through taught course and research, leading to an academic award.
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) is probably the only local university offering taught courses in GNSS. Masters in Science (Satellite Navigation) contains subjects such as Navstar GPS, GPS Navigation, Navigation Systems, and Intelligent Transportation System. While Masters in Science (Satellite Surveying) contains subjects of GPS Surveying, GPS Geodesy, GPS Navigation, and GPS Applications in Surveying and GIS. Two other programs, Masters in Science (Geomatic Engineering) and Masters in Science (Hydrographis Surveying) contain a couple of GNSS related subjects (FKSG, 2003).
UTM is also teaching several GNSS subjects in their Bachelor Degree of Geomatic Engineering, namely GPS Surveying, Satellite Navigation, and Hydrographic Positioning Systems. Post Graduate program through research works related to GNSS are also offered in areas of Satellite Navigation, Satellite Surveying, Geomatic Engineering, Hydrographic Surveying.
Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) teaches subject of Satellite Surveying in their Bachelor of Civil Engineering as well as subject of GPS in their Masters of Engineering (Remote Sensing and GIS) (Mansor, 2004). Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) are teaching topics of GNSS in subjects such as Physical and Satellite Geodesy, Geodetic Surveying, and Hydrography, under their Bachelor of Surveying Sciences and Geomatic, as well as subject of Geodetic Surveying under their Diploma of Geomatic Science program (Rosdi, 2004). Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP) teaches topics of GNSS in subject Geomatic under their Bachelor of Civil Engineering, while Akademi Laut Malaysia (ALAM) also teaches topics of GNSS in their subject of Electronic Navigation Aids (ENA) (Matori, 2004). Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) is also teaching GNSS and related topics in their Bachelor of Civil Engineering program (W. Ismail, 2004).
The institutions mentioned earlier, from time to time offer short courses in GNSS and related topics. Apart from that, Institut Tanah dan Ukur Negara (INSTUN), under the Jabatan Ukur dan Pemetaan Malaysia (JUPEM) also offers short courses in GNSS and related topics, which are primarily for their own staff in-house HRD programs. These courses are mainly focused on subjects or topics. The other parties that offers short-courses, which on the other hand focuses on instrumentations– hardwares and softwares – are GNSS related local vendors.
Other GNSS education programs
Local institutions also organize seminars and meetings on GNSS and its related fields. Such meetings are (just to mentioned several of them, for example); 1)UNOOSA The first regional workshop was held in Malaysia in August 2001 for countries in Asia and the Pacific 2)International Symposium and Exhibition on Geoinformation series, started 2002 – current 3)National Seminar on Geoinformation, started 1997 – 2001 4)National Seminar on GNSS Applications, started 2004.
The new geomatic & GNSS era
In this era of the so-called GNSS era, knowledge and innovation is considered as a crucial input in the industrialization and development of any nations. The GNSS economy is strongly influenced by the liberalization of international trade system worldwide where emphasis is given to competitiveness. With this scenario, the importance of knowledge as a factor determining the growth of nations is critically important. Malaysia, as a developing nation, sourced out its quest for high-tech knowledge from abroad, especially in the early stages of her development.
But the New Economy changed how businesses are conducted and the new rules of the game require speed, flexibility and innovation. A metal casting firm uses computer-aided manufacturing technology to cut cost, time and energy. A farmer who sows genetically altered seed and drives a tractor navigate by the GPS satellites. Or a toy manufacturer that uses the Internet to take orders from customers all over around the world. The New Economy gives birth to industry giants such as the Apple Computers from Steve Job’s and Steve Wozniak’s garage and Dell Computers from the trunk of Michael Dell’s car. A nation’s economic success will increasingly be determined by how effectively they can spurtechnological innovation, entrepreneurship, education, specialized skills, and the transition of all organizations— public and private—from bureaucratic hierarchies to learning networks.
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