Land record information system
Land Information Management System is defi ned as the combination of human and technical resources, together with a set of organizing procedures that produces information on land in support of a broad range of managerial requirements. Data are raw collection of facts. Data relating to land may be acquired and held in alphanumeric form (for example books), or graphically (for example, as maps or aerial photographs), or digitally (for example, using electronic methods). To become information, the raw data must be processed so that it can be understood by a decision maker. Land information management system may be designed to serve one primary function or they may be multifunctional for supporting strategic planning. The focus is on determining organizational objectives and on the resources employed to achieve them. Some provide for management control and are concerned with the effective use of resources so as to accomplish an organization’s objectives. Others are designed for operational control so that specifi c tasks can be carried out effectively and effi ciently. Each requirement dictates a special set of information criteria and hence a special type of information system.
Computerization of Land Records
Land information has been used in a variety of systems over the years; from register of deed tract indexes to surveyors tie sheets or soil surveys. Today many organizations are moving land information into GIS. Land information is an integral part of government, non-profi t, and private sector activities. Adopting GIS/ LIS techniques can advance broader social purposes by making more effective public decisions and by using natural resources in a more optimal way. Satellite remote sensing is an important. tool to generate cadastral map and spatial data about land. GIS supports spatial analysis and modeling procedure for solving complex planning and management problem. Information management system is an integrating technology where resources and activities are brought together to support the decision making process of an organization. By taking the advantage of Remote Sensing and GIS technology Land Record Information Management System for cadastral mapping is developed by integrating digital cadastral map and land record database.
Fig 1 Study Area
Need of LIS Software
The software integrates the spatial and other kind of information within the single system. It offers a consistent framework for storing, analyzing and displaying land data. By putting cadastral map and other kind of information into the digital form, it allows the user to retrieve the information. Visual Basic is the powerful programming language, which is used to design excellent front-end tool. Software is primarily concerned with the storage and integration of land data. In such system digital map provide the foundation to build real estate information using land parcels as basic building blocks. This software can be utilized by any organization to store and analyze the land records.
Khamkhera village is situated in Goharganj tahsil of Raisen district in Madhya Pradesh. It lies between the latitude 23º03’ to 23º 04’ north and longitude 77º 30’ to 77º 32’ east and having boundaries of villages Nayapura Mewati in North, Sarkiya in East, software Hameeri in west and Ityakala and Simrai in south with the area 200 hectare. Most of the land in the Khamkhera Village is Agricultural Land. Village is in the Malwa Plateau region and drained by the river Betwa and its tributaries.
Data and Software used
Input required for developing software at the village level are topographic sheets (Number 55E/8, 55E/12) covering entire village. Field boundaries have been delineated using merged Image of IRS 1D LISS III Sensor and CARTOSAT 1 Satellite with the spatial resolution 2.5 m. For analyzing land use/ land cover and crop distribution, images of the month Nov-2006 and Feb 2007 were used. Khasra map and Field Measurement Book details were obtained from the village Patwari. Following softwares were used for the development of Land Record Information Management System.
• Erdas Imagine 8.5 – Image Processing, Analysis
• Arc GIS 9.2- Analysis, Database Generation, Map Composition
• Visual Basic 6.0- Design and Development of Interface
The general methodology for the design of LIS was divided into three phases – Database Design, Data Analysis and Application Development.
Phase I – Database Design
Database designing phase starts with the data acquisition which leads to the preparation of maps and integration of the attribute data with map. Khasra map and Satellite Image in the raster format is imported into Erdas Imagine (*.img) software. Khasra map was geo referenced using satellite image by taking 10 GCPs with the Datum Modifi ed Everest and Lambert conformal Conic projection. The digital database of Khamkhera village of Risen district was created after performing the editing operation. Field boundaries are classifi ed as polygon. Attribute data like Khasra Number, Land Holder’s Name, Address, Area, Land Revenue, Field Type and Season (Rabi/Kharif) was integrated with the digitized cadastral map.
Phase II- Data Analysis
Analysis is done on the basis of Visual Interpretation and Ground Truth Collection. Land use / Land cover and Crop distribution maps were made.
Land use/ Land Cover distribution:
There were nine classes identifi ed for the land use and land cover distribution with the Built up land i.e. 0.81Ha, 86% land is Agricultural land, (Rabi crop -31%, Kharif Crop – 26%, double crop – 20% and 9% fallow land). National highway passed through the village covers the area (1.30Ha), which is the 1 % of the total land. Area along the Railway track comprises of 14.72 Ha i.e. the 7% of the land and Betwa River holds the area 8.68Ha i.e.4% of the total area. Remaining area of 4.66 Ha comes under the Others Class, which holds 2% of the land which is used for the different purposes.
Crop distribution as shown in the bar chart (Fig .4.2.1),wheat, Chana, and Tivda crops are the most culitivating crops in the rabi season and Soyabean is the major crop in the kharif season. In some of the area Dhan and Maize crops are grown.
Phase III- Application Development
Application development phase proceeded with Interface design and Query Generation. User friendly Interface was design to access and display the land information. With the friendly interface user can query or search the information with spatial and non spatial data. Aim of the design
Fig 2 Merged Image of IRS 1D LISS III 2 Sensor and CARTOSAT I Satellite
Fig 3 Khasra map
Fig 4 Piechart for landuse / land cover distribution
Fig. 5 Rabi Crop Distribution
is to provide User Friendly Interface, which is independent of GIS software like ArcGIS, Erdas etc with sufficient functionally to Land Information System. For interface design and query generation Visual Basic 6.0 programming language was used and MapwinGIS component was used to display map. Khasra map coverage was converted into shape files because the component only supports.
Functionality of the developed LIS software: According to the functions perform on the various layer functionality of LIS is divided into fi ve main function under the Menu bar. These functions are as follow:
The developed LIS with the functionality of Add layer, Remove layer, Zoom In, Zoom Out, Map view and tabular view etc is sufficient to effectively store, display, manage and analyze land data. Although Remote sensing data and GIS Software were used to prepare maps and database but the LRIMS is designed to run independent of the GIS software which adds the low cost to the software developed. Application was designed for the users who were not specialized in the remote sensing and GIS, little knowledge to operate computer is sufficient to use the designed LIS. As per the requirement of the project more functionality can be added to the application. More tools can be designed for the better functionalities. The advantages of developed Land Information system were as follows;
• Digital forms of the Field Map provide easy access and analysis procedures.
• User will get benefi ts from the developed application, which provides effective management of data.
Fig 6 Land Record Information Management System Interface
• By using the developed application, it is easy to analyze all aspects of
• It provides better understanding about the fi eld and surrounding. It will help to reduce land related disputes with the better delineation of boundary and accurate calculations.
• Computerization of Land records and Digitalmaps get a rid off handlingpaper map and bulk of registers.
Commercial Policy matters
Information about land is of great value to government as well as the individuals. Transparency in land information will benefit the public immensely and also greatly reduce litigations and law and order problems. However it is important to lay down defi nite rules for legitimacy and ownership of information, which may now be more easily available. The following policy issues need to be addressed:-
• Ownership of information.
• Access control of information.
• Pricing of data and cost recovery.
• Copyrights and authority to replicate or distribute data.
• Value addition to data.
Land Information System for Khamkhera Village was design and developed successfully. Application developed with the functionality of Add layer, Remove layer, Zoom In, Zoom Out, Map view and tabular view etc was suffi cient to effectively store, display, manage and analyze land data. Although Remote sensing data and GIS Software were used to prepared maps and database but the developed application was design to run independent of the GIS software which adds the low cost to the application. Application was designed for the users who were not specialized in the remote sensing and GIS, little knowledge to operate computer is suffi cient to use the application. With the help of developed application user can visualize the ground realities and can better understands the land data. Application is very useful in planning and development of the village.
• Krishna Bal, “Land? Information? System?”
http://www.gisdevelopment.net. (Map India 2000)
2 Peter Wyatt and Martin P. Ralphs (Jun 2003), “GIS in Land and Property Management”, eBook, (http://cenfor. etailer.dpsl.net).
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4 Chang Kang-Tsung, (2006).“Introduction to Geographic Information System.” Third Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publication.
5 Thakur Vinay, Khadanga Ganesh, Venkatesh D.S. and Dr Shukla D.R “Land management system in India – Past, present and future”, (LIS 2000).
6 Evangelos Petroutsos, “Mastering Visual Basic 6.0”, BPB Publications.
7 Mishra Asima and Pal Debjyoti,“Land Record Information Management System (LRIMS)” – A conceptual framework, (Map India 2000).
8 Thakur Vinay, Khadanga Ganesh, Venkatesh D.S. and Dr. Shukla D. R.,“Land Record Management System in India” – Technical Framework (Map India 2003), (http://www.gisdevelopment.net).